Phenotypic characteristics and differentiation potential of gingival mesenchymal stem cells in hyperglycemia — An ex vivo exploratory study


Background: The therapeutic use of gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) as autologous cells may pose the challenge of alterations inflicted by the hyperglycemic environment.
Objective: This study aims to assess the effects of hyperglycemia on the characteristics of GMSCs in diabetics.
Materials and Methods: 10 patients who consented and fulfilled the criteria for inclusion and exclusion were recruited and categorized as test (HbA1c > 6.5) and control (HbA1c < 6.0). Gingival explants were obtained from gingival collar of teeth, washed, digested and cultured. The cells were subjected to microscopic observation to assess phenotype characteristics, and flow cytometry and qRT-PCR to assess differentiation potential. Stem cell markers CD90, CD73, CD105, CD34, CD45, HLA DR & HLA ABC, osteogenic differentiation markers RUNX2 & OCN, adipogenic differentiation markers PPARG2 & FABP4 and chondrogenic differentiation markers SOX9 & AGCN were evaluated.
Results: Microscopic appearance of spindle shaped cells was found to be comparable in both groups. Flow cytometry results demonstrated comparable expressions with both groups, samples being positive for CD90, CD73, CD105, HLA ABC and negative for CD34, CD45 & HLA DR. There were variations in the expression of markers when assessed for differentiation potentials.
Conclusions: The hyperglycemic environment did not manifest any changes in the phenotypic characteristics of GMSCs among diabetics. However, the expression of certain differentiation markers was significantly altered in the diabetic test population included. Further research is being conducted to understand the GMSCs in a hyperglycemic environment with an aim to develop strategies to optimize its clinical implications.
Keywords: Gingiva; Mesenchymal stem cells; Diabetes mellitus; Cell Differentiation; Hyperglycemia; Flow cytometry.


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How to Cite
BASAVARAJU, Suman et al. Phenotypic characteristics and differentiation potential of gingival mesenchymal stem cells in hyperglycemia — An ex vivo exploratory study. Journal of Oral Research, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 1, p. 1-14, mar. 2024. ISSN 0719-2479. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 12 july 2024. doi: