Evaluation of oral stereognosis in completely edentulous patients with palatal tori.

  • Indumathi Sivakumar Faculty of Dentistry, SEGi University, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Rachel Chua Hui Shien Klinik Pergigian Sultan Ismail Hospital, Johor, Malaysia
  • Nur Lyanna Mahfuzah Binti Mohamad Johar Klinik Pergigian Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Sham Wern Xuan Klinik Pergigian Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Sin Pi Xian Klinik Pergigian Simpang Lima, Klinik Pergigian Simpang Lima, Selangor, Malaysia


Background: The corollary is not investigated in the completely edentulous patients with palatal tori. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the oral stereognostic ability in completely edentulous patients with palatal tori. Material and Methods: Thirty-four completely edentulous patients aged 50 to 89 years were allocated to Group 1 (without palatal tori, n=18) and Group 2 (with palatal tori, n=16). The oral stereognostic test was conducted using 6 intraoral test pieces (circle/square/rectangle/triangle/plus/toroid) that were fabricated to standard dimensions using the light cure acrylic resin. Each test piece was placed in the patient’s mouth and was asked to manipulate the test piece between the tongue and the palate. The patients identified the shapes by matching them on a shape chart. Each correct identification was assigned a score of 1. The response time taken to identify each shape was recorded. Statistical computation was done using a chi - square test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Significant difference was observed in the overall scoring percentages between the 2 groups (p<0.05). Group 2 had lower oral stereognostic scores compared to group 1 (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean response time for identifying the shapes among the groups, however group 2 patients had longer response time. Conclusion: Oral stereognostic ability of the completely edentulous patients with torus palatinus was lower when compared to completely edentulous patients without tori.

Author Biography

Indumathi Sivakumar, Faculty of Dentistry, SEGi University, Selangor, Malaysia.
Interim Editor -in- Chief


1. Silvestri LA, Silvestri AE. Saunders Comprehensive Review for the NCLEX-RN® Examination. 8th Edition. Saunders. 2020
2. Berry DC, Mahood M. Oral stereognosis and oral ability in relation to prosthetic treatment. Br Dent J. 1966;120(4):179-85.
3. Chauvin JO, Bessette RW. Oral stereognosis as a clinical index. NY State Dent J 1974;40:543-546.
4. Capra NF. Mechanisms of Oral Sensation. Dysphagia. 1995;10:235-247.
5. Landt H. Oral and manual recognition of forms. Part I. Test results based on the test pieces. Swed Dent J. 1976;69:15-23.
6. Landt H. Oral and manual recognition of forms. Part I. Test results based on the test pieces. Sven Tandlak Tidskr. 1976;69(1):15-23
7. Jacobs R, Bou Serhal C, van Steenberghe D. Oral stereognosis: a review of the literature. Clin Oral Investig. 1998;2:3-10.
8. Landt H, Fransson B. Oral ability to recognise forms and oral muscular coordination ability in young and elderly adults. J Oral Rehabil. 1975;2:125–38.
9. Park JH. Changes in oral stereognosis of healthy adults by age. J Oral Sci. 2017;59:71-6.
10. Litvak H, Silverman SI, Garfinkel L. Oral stereognosis in dentulous and edentulous subjects. J Prostthet Dent. 1971;25:139-51.
11. Müller F, Link I, Fuhr K, Utz KH. Studies on adaptation to complete dentures. Part II: Oral stereognosis and tactile sensibility. J Oral Rehabil. 1995;22:759-67.
12. Meenakshi S, Gujjari AK, Thippeswamy HN, Raghunath N. Evaluation of oral stereognostic ability after rehabilitating patients with complete dentures: in vivo study. J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2014;14:363-8.
13. Ikebe K, Amemiya M, Morii K, Matsuda K, Furuya-Yoshinaka M, Nokubi T. Comparison of oral stereognosis in relation to age and the use of complete dentures. J Oral Rehabil. 2007;34:345-50.
14. Mantecchini G, Bassi F, Pera P, Preti G. Oral stereognosis in edentulous subjects rehabilitated with complete removable dentures. J Oral Rehabil.1998;25:185-9.
15. Singh V, Mattoo KA. Oral Stereognosis pattern in patients with dental prosthesis in the elderly population. Int J Clin Exp Physiol 2014;1(3):211-5.
16. Engelen L, Prinz JF, Bosman F. The influence of density and material on oral perception of ball size with and without palatal coverage. Arch Oral Biol. 2002;47:197-201.
17. Bakhtiyari J, Dadgar H, Sadolahi A, Khatoonabadi AR. Oral Stereognosis in children with cleft palate and normal children. Middle East J Rehabil Health. 2014;1:e20840.
18. Hochberg I, Kabcenell J. Oral stereognosis in normal and cleft palate individuals. Cleft Palate J. 1967;4:47-57.
19. Pedreira APRV, Bonachela WC, Rossetti PHO, Pinto JHN. Oral stereognosis in dentate and edentulous subjects with and without cleft lip and palate before and after chewing. Int J Oral-Med Sci. 2004;3:61-5.
20. Sathya K, Kanneppady SK, Arishiya T. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of oral tori among outpatients in Northern Malaysia. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res. 2012;2:15-19.
21. Kumar Singh A, Sulugodu Ramachandra S, Arora S, Dicksit DD, Kalyan CG, Singh P. Prevalence of oral tori and exostosis in Malaysian population- A cross-sectional study. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res. 2017;7:158-60.
22. Chohayeb AA and Volpe AR. Occurrence of torus palatinus and mandibularis among women of different ethnic groups. Am J Dent. 2001;14(5)278-80.
23. Garcia-Garcia AS, Martinez-Gonzalez JM, Gomez-Font R, Soto-Rivadeneira A, Oviedo-Roldán L. Current status of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis. Med Oral Pathol Oral Cir Bucal. 2010;15:353-60.
24. Kilic K, Kurtulus I L, Eraslan R, Zararsiz G, Kesim B. Effects of attachment type and palatal coverage on oral perception and patient satisfaction in maxillary implant-supported complete denture patients. Niger J Clin Pract. 2019;22:669-74.
25. Loukas M, Hulsberg P, Tubbs RS. The tori of the mouth and ear: a review. Clin Anat. 2013;26:953-60.
26. Carlsson GE, Omar R. The future of complete dentures in oral rehabilitation. A critical review. J Oral Rehabil 2010;37:143–56.
27. Oral Pharyngeal Development Section, National Institute of Dental Research of Health NIDR1980. Avalaible at: https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/national-institute-dental-craniofacial-research-nidcr.
28. Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Chi AC: Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (Ed 4). London, Elsevier Inc ,2016
29. Forghani, Smoker WRK, Curtin HD: Pathology of the oral region in Son PM, Curtin HD (Eds): Head and Neck Imaging. (Ed 5). London, Mosby Inc, 2011
30. Trulsson M, Johansson RS. Orofacial mechanoreceptors in humans: encoding characteristics and responses during natural orofacial behaviors. Behav Brain Res. 2002; 135:27-33.
31. Haggard P, Boer L. Oral somatosensory awareness. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014;47:469-84.
How to Cite
SIVAKUMAR, Indumathi et al. Evaluation of oral stereognosis in completely edentulous patients with palatal tori.. Journal of Oral Research, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. 1-8, feb. 2021. ISSN 0719-2479. Available at: <https://joralres.com/index.php/JOR/article/view/joralres.2021.009>. Date accessed: 01 aug. 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.17126/joralres.2021.009.