Pre-emptive low-dose ketamine with local anesthesia reduces postoperative morbidity after third molar surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

  • Shaimaa Mohsen Refahee Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt.
  • Essam Ahmed Al-Moraissi Departament of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Regional Dental Center in Qassim, Ministry of Health, Buraydah, Qassim, Saudia Arabia. | Departament. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Thamar University, Thamar, Yemen.
  • Ahmed Saleh Yehya Alkhutari Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Thamar University, Yemen.


Objective: This review addresses a clinical research question related to lower third molar surgery (L3MS): does the combination of pre-emptive low-dose ketamine with local anesthesia (KLA) reduce postoperative complications compared with local anesthesia (LA) alone? Material and methods: A systematic literature search was performed to identify eligible articles by electronic searches of PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EBSCO Library, Web of Science and grey literature through June 2019 without data or language restrictions. We analyzed all randomized controlled clinical studies (RCTs) comparing use of KLA with use of LA in L3MS regarding pain, swelling, and trismus outcomes. The quality of evidence was rated according to Cochrane’s tool for assessing risk of bias. Results: Five RCTs encompassing 230 extraction sites (KLA = 115, LA = 115) were included in this study. The standardized mean difference (SMD) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to synthesize the results. The data show that there were significant differences between the two groups in post-operative pain (SMD -1.464, 95% CI -1.683 to -0.949, p= 0.001) and swelling (SMD -0.450, 95% CI -0.758 to -0.142, p= 0.004, all low quality evidence). However, there was no significant difference in the trismus (SMD -0.754, CI -1.487 to -0.022, p = 0.043, very low quality evidence). Conclusion: The combination of pre-emptive low-dose ketamine with LA significantly decreased pain and swelling within the first 24 hours after L3MS compared with the control group.


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How to Cite
REFAHEE, Shaimaa Mohsen; AL-MORAISSI, Essam Ahmed; ALKHUTARI, Ahmed Saleh Yehya. Pre-emptive low-dose ketamine with local anesthesia reduces postoperative morbidity after third molar surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.. Journal of Oral Research, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 4, p. 259-270, sep. 2020. ISSN 0719-2479. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 24 july 2021. doi: