Prevalence of gingival biotype in adult patients of the dentistry services of two Peruvian hospitals April-June 2018.

  • Fiorella Plasencia-Esquivel Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Trujillo, Perú.
  • Angel Asmat-Abanto Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Trujillo, Perú. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Perú.


Introduction: The gingival biotype of a population is important epidemiological data for the best treatment planning, while preserving periodontal health. In Peru there is a shortage of similar data published. Objective: To determine the prevalence of gingival biotype in adult patients of the Dental Service of the Víctor Lazarte Echegaray and Hospital Regional Docente de Trujillo, April - June 2018. Ma-terials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study included 200 patients from the Dentistry Service of the Víctor Lazarte Echegaray and Hospital Regional Docente de Trujillo. Using the accidental non-probabilistic selection method, the gingival biotype was evaluated through the transparency of periodontal probe technique. To determine the reliability of the method the Kappa statistic was used, finding an inter-evaluator reliability of 0.750 and intra-evaluator of 0.762. Descriptive statistics were used for the results, presenting absolute and percentage frequencies. Results: The prevalence of the thick gingival biotype was 57.5%. Males and females presented predominantly a thick biotype, 63.1% and 54.8% respectively. The groups of 18 to 29 and 30 to 39 years old presented 62.1% and 64.5% a thick biotype, respectively. On the other hand, the majority of people 40 to 50 years old presented a thin gingival biotype (52.8%). Conclusions: The thick gingival biotype was predominant in both sexes and in both hospitals. Also, gingival biotype varies with age, with the thick biotype more prevalent in younger age groups.


1. Manjunath RG, Rana A, Sarkar A. Gingival biotype assessment in a healthy periodontium: transgingival probing method. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015; 9(5):66-9.
2. Shah R, Sowmya NK, Mehta DS. Prevalence of gingival biotype and its relationship to clinical parameters. Contemp Clin Dent. 2015; 6(6):167–71.
3. Zweers J, Thomas RZ, Slot DE, Weisgold AS, Van der Weijden FG. Characteristics of periodontal biotype, its dimensions, associations and prevalence: a systematic review. J Clin Periodontol. 2014;41(10):958-71.
4. Amid R, Mirakhori M, Safi Y, Kadkhodazadeh M, Namdari M. Assessment of gingival biotype and facial hard/soft tissue dimensions in the maxillary anterior teeth region using cone beam computed tomography. Arch Oral Biol. 2017; 79:1-6.
5. Nikiforidou M, Tsalikis L, Angelopoulos C, Menexes G, Vouros I, Konstantinides A. Classification of periodontal biotypes with the use of CBCT. A cross-sectional study. Clin Oral Investig. 2016; 20(8):2061-71.
6. Agarwal V, Sunny, Mehrotra N, Vijay V. Gingival biotype assessment: variations in gingival thickness with regard to age, gender, and arch location. Indian J Dent Sci. 2017; 9(1): 12-5.
7. Seba A, Deepak KT, Ambili R, Preeja C, Archana V. Gingival biotype and its clinical significance – a review. Saudi J Dent Res. 2014;5(1):3-7.
8. Ramírez K, García O, Murillo M, Fernández O, Boneta E. Dentogingival complex: dimension based on biotypes. P R Health Sci J. 2013; 32(4):182-6.
9. Rathee M, Rao P, Bhoria M. Prevalence of gingival biotypes among young dentate north indian population: a biometric approach. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2016;9(2): 104–8.
10. Pascual A, Barallat L, Santos A, Levi P Jr, Vicario M, Nart J. Comparison of periodontal biotypes between maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth: a clinical and radiographic study. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2017;37(4):533-9.
11. Frumkin N, Via S, Klinger A. Evaluation of the width of the alveolar bone in subjects with different gingival biotypes: a prospective cohort study using cone beam computed tomography. Quintessence Int. 2017; 48(3):209-16.
12. Kan JY, Morimoto T, Rungcharassaeng K, Roe P, Smith DH. Gingival biotype assessment in the esthetic zone: visual versus direct measurement. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2010;30(3):237-43.
13. Fischer KR, Grill E, Jockel Y, Bechtold M, Schlagenhauf U, Fickl S. On the relationship between gingival biotypes and supracrestal gingival height, crown form and papilla. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014; 25(8): 894-8.
14. Fischer KR, Richter T, Kebschull M, Petersen N, Fickl S. On the relationship between gingival biotypes and gingival thickness in young Caucasians. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2015;26(8):865-9.
15. Savadi A, Rangarajan V, Savadi R, Satheesh P. Biologic perspectives in restorative treatment. J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2011; 11 (3):143-8.
16. Zawawi KH, Al-Harthi SM, Al-Zahrani MS. Prevalence of gingival biotype and its relationship to dental malocclusion. Saudi Med J. 2012; 33(6):671-5.
17. Arbildo H, Aguirre A, Chang A. Prevalência de biótipos gengivais numa populacão peruana. Rev Port Estomatol Med Dent Cir Maxilofac. 2016;57(3):158–63.
18. Arora R, Narula SC, Sharma RK, Tewari S. Supracrestal gingival tissue: assessing relation with periodontal biotypes in a healthy periodontium. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2013;33(6):763-71.
19. Malhotra R, Grover V, Brardwaj A, Mohindra K. Analysis of the gingival biotype based on the measurement of the dentopapillary complex. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2014;18(1): 43-7.
20. Singh J, Rathod VJ, Rao PR, Patil AA, Langade DG, Singh RK. Correlation of gingival thickness with gingival width, probing depth, and papillary fill in maxillary anterior teeth in students of a dental college in Navi Mumbai. Contemp Clin Dent. 2016;7(4):535-8.
21. Nugala B, Santosh BB, Sahitya S, Krishna PM. Biologic width and its importance in periodontal and restorative dentistry. J Conserv Dent. 2012; 15(1):12-7.
22. Liu F, Pelekos G, Jin LJ. The gingival biotype in a cohort of Chinese subjects with and without history of periodontal disease. J Periodontal Res. 2017;52(6):1004-10.
23. Bhat V, Shetty V. Prevalence of different gingival biotypes in individuals with varying forms of maxillary central incisors: A survey. J Dent Implant. 2013;3(2):116-21.
24. Navarrete M, Godoya I, Meloa P, Nallya J. Correlación entre biotipo gingival, ancho y grosor de encía adherida en zona estética del maxilar superior. Rev Clin Periodoncia Implantol Rehabil Oral. 2015;8(3):192-7
25. Matarese G, Isola G, Ramaglia L, Dalessandri D, Lucchese A, Alibrandi A. Periodontal biotype: characteristic, prevalence and dimensions related to dental malocclusion. Minerva Stomatol. 2016; 65(4):231-8.
26. Vandana KL, Savitha B. Thickness of gingiva in association with age, gender and dental arch location. J Clin Periodontol. 2005; 32(7):828-30.
How to Cite
PLASENCIA-ESQUIVEL, Fiorella; ASMAT-ABANTO, Angel. Prevalence of gingival biotype in adult patients of the dentistry services of two Peruvian hospitals April-June 2018.. Journal of Oral Research, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 4, p. 331-336, nov. 2019. ISSN 0719-2479. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 24 july 2021. doi: