Prevalence of malocclusions and dysfunctional oral habits in preschool children of municipal establishments in Viña del Mar.

  • Nicolás Aróstica Hospital Dr. Víctor Hugo Möll, Servicio de Salud Viña del Mar-Quillota.
  • Gabriela Carrillo Práctica Privada, Viña del Mar, Chile.
  • Alfredo Cueto Escuela de Odontología, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.
  • Dylan Mariño Estudiante de Odontología, Universidad Andrés Bello. Viña del Mar, Chile.
  • Teresa Jofré Departamento de Ortodoncia y Odontopediatría, Escuela de Odontología, Universidad Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile.

Abstract

Introduction: Malocclusions are a public health problem at national and global level, being third in the ranking of the most prevalent oral pathologies.Its origin is multifactorial, with dysfunctional oral habits being a risk factor. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusions and dysfunctional oral habits in students aged between 4 and 6 years in state-run public schools in Viña del Mar, Chile. Material and methods: A prevalence study was carried out in 184 students selected by random cluster sampling. Malocclusions were assessed by clinical examination, while dysfunctional oral habits were assessed by questionnaires and clinical examination. The data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, Chi-square test and the PHI correlation coefficient. Results: The prevalence of malocclusions was 54.35% (95% CI [47.04% - 61.47%]), with dental crowding being the most frequent, while prevalence of dysfunctional oral habits was 95.11% (95% CI [90.82% - 97.45%]), led by lingual interposition. In none of the cases statistically significant differences of age, gender or class were noticed. The evidence provided by this study indicates that the presence of malocclusions is independent of the presence of dysfunctional oral habits, except between open bite and interposition of objects, whose magnitude of dependence was minor (0.2). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of malocclusions and dysfunctional oral habits in preschool children, with dental crowding and lingual interposition being the most frequent, respectively. The presence of malocclusions is independent of the presence of dysfunctional oral habits.

Author Biography

Nicolás Aróstica, Hospital Dr. Víctor Hugo Möll, Servicio de Salud Viña del Mar-Quillota.
Interim Editor -in- Chief

References

1. Minsal. Guía clínica de atención primaria odontológica del pre-escolar de 2 a 5 años. Serie Guías Clínicas MINSAL. Santiago, Chile. 2009.
2. MINSAL. Estrategia Nacional de Salud Para el cumplimiento de los Objetivos Sanitarios de la Década 2011-2020. Elige vivir sano. Chile.
3. Gantz C, Santelices M. Prevalencia de anomalías dentomaxilares verticales y hábitos orales parafuncionales en niños de 4 a 6 años de edad con dentición temporal completa. Rev Chil Ortod. 2013; 30(2): 54-61.
4. Sandoval P, Bizcar B. Beneficios de la Implementación de Ortodoncia Interceptiva en la Clínica Infantil. IJO , 2013; 7(2): 253-65.
5. Burgos D. Prevalencia de maloclusiones en niños y adolescentes de 6 a 15 años en Frutillar, Chile. IJO, 2014; 8(1):13-19.
6. Gantz O, Santelices B. Prevalencia de anomalías dentomaxilares verticales y hábitos orales parafuncionales en niños de 4 a 6 años de edad con dentición temporal completa. Rev Chil Ortod. 2013,30(2):54-61.
7. Wauters M, Vergara D, Vergara P, Pérez D, Parada J, Aguilera J. Prevalencia de anomalías dentomaxilares y articulatorias en escolares, Cochamó. Rev Chil Ortod. 2014; 32(2):74-81.
8. Sousa R, Clementino M, Gomes M, Martins C, Granville-Garcia A, Paiva S. Malocclusion and quality of life in Brazilian preschoolers. Eur J Oral Sci, 2014; 122: 223-29.
9. Zhou Z, Liu F, Shen S, Shang L, Shang L, Wang X. Prevalence of and factors affecting malocclusion in primary dentition among children in Xi’an, China. BMC Oral Health, 2016; 16(91): 1-11.
10. Espinoza A, Parra N. Prevalencia de Anomalías Dentomaxilares y Malos Hábitos Orales en preescolares de zonas rurales de la población beneficiaria del Servicio de Salud Viña del Mar/Quillota. Rev Chil Ortod, 2011; 28(2): 58-65.
11. MINSAL. Normas en la prevención e intercepción de anomalías dentomaxilares. Chile, 1998.
12. Calderón N, Cerna N, Escudero D, Guzmán C, Leppe J, Álvarez E. Descripción de la Implementación de las Normas de Prevención e Intercepción de Anomalías Dentomaxilares a Nivel Primario del Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Oriente. Rev Chil Ortod, 2009;26(2):54-62.
13. Bhat SS, Rao HA, Hegde KS, Kumar BK. Characteristics of primary dentition occlusion in preschool children: an epidemiological study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2012;5(2):93-7.
14. Vegesna M, Chandrasekhar R, Chandrappa V. Occlusal Characteristics and Spacing in Primary Dentition: A Gender Comparative Cross-Sectional Study. Int Sch Res Notices. 2014;2014:512680.
15. Shavi GR, Hiremath NV, Shukla R, Bali PK, Jain SK, Ajagannanavar SL. Prevalence of Spaced and Non-Spaced Dentition and Occlusal Relationship of Primary Dentition and its Relation to Malocclusion in School Children of Davangere. J Int Oral Health. 2015;7(9):75-8.
16. Muñoz M, Skog F, Cueto A. Prevalencia de maloclusiones y su necesidad de tratamiento ortodóncico en una población de 12 a 15 años. [TESIS ].Universidad Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile, 2014.
17. López Bazán C. “Prevalencia De Los Planos Terminales y Arcos De Baume En Pacientes Atendidos En La Clínica De La Especialización En Odontología Infantil, Del 2013 Al 2015, En La Ciudad De Xalapa, Veracruz.”. Universidad Veracruzana; Xalapa, Veracruz. 2015.
18. OMS. Oral health surveys: basic methods - 5th edition. 2013.
19. Facciolli S, Cortellazzi K, da Silva E, Hebling E, Bovi G, de Castro M, Pereira A. Relationship between malocclusion and behavioral, demographic and socioeconomic variables: a cross-sectional study of 5-year-olds. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2008; 33(1):75-9.
20. MINEDUC. Guia de apoyo Tecnico-Pedagogico. Necesidades educativas especiales asociadas en el nivel de educación parvularia.
Santiago, Chile. 2007
21. Aparici M, Igualada A. El desarrollo del lenguaje y la comunicación en la infancia. Cataluña. España, Editorial Universitat Oberta. 2019.
22. Marya C. Textbook of Public Health Dentistry. New Delhi, India. Editorial Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. 2011.
23. Álvarez M, Pérez A, Martínez I, García M, Suárez R. Hábitos bucales deformantes y maloclusiones dentarias en niños de 5-11 años. Matanzas, 2006. Rev Med Electrón. 2014;36(4): 396-407.
24. Chedid S. Ortopedia e Ortodontia para a dentição decídua: Atendimento integral ao desenvolvimento da oclusão infantil. São Paulo, Editorial Livraria Santos Editora. 2013.
25. Jajoo S, Chunawala Y, Nadeem M, Shah R, Kamble A, Karande N. Oral Habits in School Going Children of Pune: A Prevalence Study. J Int Oral Healt. 2015; 7(10):96-110.
26. Vieira R, Arrais G, Targino R, Castro C, Granville-Garcia A, Martin S. Prevalence and Associated Factors for the Development of Anterior Open Bite and Posterior Crossbite in the Primary Dentition. Braz Dent J. 2014; 25(4): 336-342.
27. Dhull K, Verma T, Dutta B. Prevalencia de hábitos orales nocivos en niños preescolares de 3 a 5 años en Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2018; 11(3): 210-213.
28. Corrêa-Faria P, Ramos-Jorge ML, Martins-Júnior PA, Vieira-Andrade RG, Marques LS. Malocclusion in preschool children: prevalence and determinant factors. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2014;15(2):89-96.
29. Kasparaviciene K, Sidlauskas A, Zasciurinskiene E, Vasiliauskas A, Juodzbalys G, Sidlauskas M, Marmaite U. The prevalence of malocclusion and oral habits among 5-7-year-old children. Med Sci Monit. 2014;20:2036-42.
Published
2020-10-26
How to Cite
ARÓSTICA, Nicolás et al. Prevalence of malocclusions and dysfunctional oral habits in preschool children of municipal establishments in Viña del Mar.. Journal of Oral Research, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 4, p. 271-279, oct. 2020. ISSN 0719-2479. Available at: <http://joralres.com/index.php/JOR/article/view/joralres.2020.068>. Date accessed: 01 dec. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.17126/joralres.2020.068.
Section
Articles