Crowding of anterior teeth and bullying in schoolchildren.

  • Irma Rivera-Montoya Private practice, Trujillo, Peru.
  • Valerie Saldaña-Carranza Private Practice, Peru.
  • Marcos J. Carruitero Faculty of medicine, Antenor Orrego Private University, Trujillo, Peru.


Objective: To compare the crowding of anterior teeth in schoolchildren with and without experience of bullying. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, comparative and observational study was conducted in two educational institutions, one public and one private; The sample consisted of 218 schoolchildren between 11 and 16 years of age. Dental crowding was evaluated in the upper and lower anterior sector using Little's irregularity index. To diagnose bullying, a previously validated questionnaire was applied, with dichotomized questions. The comparison between crowding in patients with and without experience of bullying was evaluated with the U-Mann Whitney statistical test. Results: Statistically significant differences in the amount of crowding (p<0.05) were found. The average crowding for the group subjected to bullying was 11.6 +/- 9.4 mm and in the group without bullying was 9.1+/- 7.9 mm. Conclusion: There was a higher amount of dental crowding in schoolchildren subjected to bullying compared to schoolchildren with no bullying.


1. Al-Bitar ZB, Al-Omari IK, Sonbol HN, Al-Ahmad HT, Cunningham SJ. Bullying among Jordanian schoolchildren, its effects on school performance, and the contribution of general physical and dentofacial features. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2013;144:872-8.
2. Chikaodi O, Abdulmanan Y, Emmanuel AT, Muhammad J, Mohammed MA, Izegboya A, Donald OO, Balarabe S. Bullying, its effects on attitude towards class attendance and the contribution of physical and dentofacial features among adolescents in Northern Nigeria. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2017;31(2):1-8.
3. Bazán-Serrano M, Carruitero MJ. Assessment of general bullying and bullying due to appearance of teeth in a sample of 11-16 year-old Peruvian schoolchildren. J Oral Res 2017;6(11):287-90.
4. Mello FMC, Silva JLD, Oliveira WA, Prado RRD, Malta DC, Silva MAI. The practice of bullying among Brazilian schoolchildren and associated factors, National School Health Survey 2015. Cien Saude Colet. 2017;22(9):29- 39.
5. Seehra J, Newton JT, Dibiase AT. Interceptive orthodontic treatment in bullied adolescents and its impact on self-esteem and oral-health-related quality of life. Eur J Orthod. 2013;35(5): 615–21.
6. O'Keefe C, Sinnott P. Early orthognathic surgery in response to bullying due to malocclusion. J Ir Dent Assoc. 2016;62(6):343-7.
7. Gissela Gálvez-Cubas, Daniella Céspedes-Martínez, Franks Gamero-Castillo, Cecilia Tomás-De la Cruz1,a, María Elena Díaz-Pizán. Bullyng school in child as a result of oral health: case report. Rev Estomatol Herediana. 2015;25(2):152-8.
8. Little R. The irregularity Index: A quantitative score of mandibular anterior alignment. Am. J Orthod 1975;68:554-63.
9. Florián-Vargas K, Carruitero MJ, Bernabé E, Flores-Mir C. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample. Dental Press J Orthod. 2016;21(2):59-64.
10. Quito-Rabanal X, Carruitero MJ. Bullying in schoolchildren according to angle’s classifications of malocclusion. J Oral Res. 2018;7(5):206-9.
How to Cite
RIVERA-MONTOYA, Irma; SALDAÑA-CARRANZA, Valerie; CARRUITERO, Marcos J.. Crowding of anterior teeth and bullying in schoolchildren.. Journal of Oral Research, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 3, p. 162-165, june 2020. ISSN 0719-2479. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 28 sep. 2020. doi: