Impact of the need for orthodontic treatment on academic performance, self-esteem and bullying in schoolchildren.

  • Marcos J. Carruitero Stomatology School. Antenor Orrego Private University. Trujillo, Peru.
  • Kenny Julca-Ching Private Practice, Peru.


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the need for orthodontic treatment on academic performance, self-esteem and bullying in schoolchildren. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study included a total of 147 school children between 12 and 18 years of age. Academic performance was measured taking into account the final average grades for all the courses; for self-esteem and bullying, scores obtained with validated questionnaires were used. The Dental Aesthetic Index was used to determine the need for orthodontic treatment. The Kruskal Wallis test was used for the comparisons between the scores for academic performance, self-esteem and bullying according to each category of need for orthodontic treatment; a level of significance of 5% was considered.Results: The results showed mean academic performance scores of 13.6, 12.5, 12.9, 13.2 for those who did not need orthodontic treatment, those with defined malocclusion, severe malocclusion and very severe malocclusion, respectively; for self-esteem the scores were 21.6, 20.9, 21.0 and 20.5; and for bullying, 14.2, 15.4, 14.5 and 13.0. No statistically significant differences were found between the scores in the different groups evaluated (p>0.05). Conclusion: The need for orthodontic treatment in schoolchildren showed no impact on academic performance, self-esteem and bullying. The need for orthodontic treatment, as measured by the Dental Aesthetic Index, did not prove to be a determining factor in the presence of such variables in schoolchildren.


1. Nagalakshmi S, James S, Rahila C, Balachandar K, Satish R. Assessment of malocclusion severity and orthodontic treatment needs in 12-15-year-old school children of Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, using Dental Aesthetic Index. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2017;35(3):188–92.
2. Basha S, Mohamed RN, Swamy HS, Parameshwarappa P. Untreated Gross Dental Malocclusion in Adolescents: Psychological Impact and Effect on Academic Performance in School. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2016;14(1):63–9.
3. Florián-Vargas K, Carruitero MJ, Bernabé E, Flores-Mir C. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample. Dental Press J Orthod. 2016;21(2):59–64.
4. Quito-Rabanal X, Carruitero MJ. Bullying in schoolchildren according to Angle’s classifications of malocclusion. J Oral Res. 2018;7(5):206–9.
5. Bazán-Serrano M, Carruitero MJ. Assessment of general bullying and bullying due to appearance of teeth in a sample of 11-16 year-old Peruvian schoolchildren. J Oral Res. 2017;6(11):287–90.
6. Kaplan JB. Aesthetic self-esteem. Plast Surg Nurs. 2015;35(1):33–9.
7. Chernyshov PV. Stigmatization and self-perception in children with atopic dermatitis. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2016;9:159–66.
8. Al-Bitar ZB, Al-Omari IK, Sonbol HN, Al-Ahmad HT, Cunningham SJ. Bullying among Jordanian schoolchildren, its effects on school performance, and the contribution of general physical and dentofacial features. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2013;144(6):872–8.
9. Bernabé E, Flores-Mir C. Influence of anterior occlusal characteristics on self-perceived dental appearance in young adults. Angle Orthod. 2007;77(5):831–6.
10. Rosenberg M. Society And The Adolescent Self Image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 1965.
How to Cite
CARRUITERO, Marcos J.; JULCA-CHING, Kenny. Impact of the need for orthodontic treatment on academic performance, self-esteem and bullying in schoolchildren.. Journal of Oral Research, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 2, p. 99-103, may 2019. ISSN 0719-2479. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 16 june 2019. doi: