A perspective of marginal microleakage in class II composite resin restorations using different types and techniques: an in-vitro study.

Bassam Alasbahi


The study aimed to introduce a perspective of the essential reason behind why marginal microleakage develops regardless of the composite type, the technique, or the bonding system applied, especially in gingival floor of class II cavities. Materials and Methods: Three types of composite resin materials (CharmfilTM, ParaFillTM, and ProMedica®) were used to evaluate microleakage of class II restorations using two restorative approaches. Twenty four newly extracted bicuspid teeth were divided into two main groups (n=12 each) according to the restoration technique (open or closed sandwich techniques). Teeth of each group were then divided into 3 groups (n= 4 each) according to the type of the composite resin used. The restorations were then subjected to a thermocycling process and then were immersed into methylene blue solution for 12 hours. Mesiodistal sectional cuts were made along the central grooves and assessed under stereomicroscope for marginal microleakage. The data were statistically analyzed with a p-value <0.05 considered significant. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in marginal microleakage between the three examined groups using both techniques (p>0.05). Under the microscope, the marginal microleakage was more obvious at the cervical region than at the occlusal region.Conclusion: There was no effect of the composite type or the application technique used on the occurrence of marginal microleakage. The first portion of the material applied against the cavity floor is the primary factor involved in possibly minimizing marginal microleakage.


Dental leakage; marginal microleakage; composite resins; sandwich technique; dental restoration.


Elbishari H, Satterthwaite J, Silikas N. Effect of filler size and temperature on packing stress and viscosity of resin-composites. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(8):5330–8.

Sarfi S, Bali D, Grewal MS. Effect of different layering techniques on microleakage of nanofilled composite in class i restorations: An In Vitro study. JICDRO. 2017;9(1):8–11.

Velagapudi NJ, Reddy ER, Aduri R, Prasad MG, Sahana S, Vaila A. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Integrity and Microleakage in Nanoionomer and Low Shrinkage Posterior Composite Restorative Materials: An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health. 2016;8(2):261–6.

Ansari ZJ, Khalili H, Tork MAK, Siavashani MA. Micro-shear Bond Strength of a Nanofiller Bonding agent with and without Thermocycling in a Newly Invented Device. J Islam Dent Assoc Iran. 2013;25(3):222–7.

Jain A, Deepti D, Tavane PN, Singh A, Gupta P, Gupta A. Evaluation of Microleakage of Recent Nano-hybrid Composites in Class V Restorations: An In Vitro Study. Int J Adv Health Sci. 2015;2(1):8–12.

Sarfi S, Sharma N, Garg ER, Bali D. Comparing microleakage in Silorane based composite and nanofilled composite using different layering techniques in class I restorations : An in vitro study. Int Arch Integr Med. 2017;4(7):23–32.

St-Pierre L, Chen L, Qian F, Vargas MA. Effect of adhesive filler content on marginal adaptation of class II composite resin restorations. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2017;2(1):1–7.

Moosavi H, Maleknejad F, Forghani M, Afshari E. Evaluating Resin-Dentin Bond by Microtensile Bond Strength Test: Effects of Various Resin Composites and Placement Techniques. Open Dent J. 2015;9:409–13.

Spiller MS, Wright M, The Academy of Dental Learning and OSHA Training. Dental Composites: A Comprehensive Review. 1st Ed. California: ADA CERP; 2017.

Lotfi N, Esmaeili B, Ahmadizenouz G, Bijani A, Khadem H. Gingival microleakage in class II composite restorations using different flowable composites as liner: an in vitro evaluation. Caspian J Dent Res. 2015;4(1):10–6.

Fabianelli A, Sgarra A, Goracci C, Cantoro A, Pollington S, Ferrari M. Microleakage in class II restorations: open vs closed centripetal build-up technique. Oper Dent. 2010;35(3):308–13.

Pomohaci DD, Radu TM, Teodorovici P, Tanculescu O, Andrian S. Preventing marginal microleakage in class II restoration using bioadhesive materials. J Romanian Med Dent. 2009;13(3):63–8.

Patel P, Shah M, Agrawal N, Desai P, Tailor K, Patel K. Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Class II Cavities Restored with Different Bulk Fill Composite Restorative Systems: An In Vitro Study. J Res Adv Dent. 2016;5(2):52–6.

Stansbury J, Bowman C. The Progress in Development of Dental Restorative Materials. Material Matters. 2010;5(3):73.

Soares CJ, Faria-E-Silva AL, Rodrigues MP, Vilela ABF, Pfeifer CS, Tantbirojn D, Versluis A. Polymerization shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements - What do we need to know? Braz Oral Res. 2017;31(suppl 1):e62.

Somani R, Jaidka S, Arora S. Comparative evaluation of microleakage of newer generation dentin bonding agents: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res. 2016;27(1):86–90.

Sidhu SK. Glass-ionomer cement restorative materials: a sticky subject? Aust Dent J. 2011;56(Suppl 1):23–30.

Kapoor N, Bahuguna N, Anand S. Influence of composite insertion technique on gap formation. J Conserv Dent. 2016;19(1):77–81.

Roopa R, Anupriya B. Effect of four different placement techniques on marginal microleakage in class II restorations: An in vitro study. World J Dent. 2011;2:111–6.

Bona AD, Pinzetta C, Rosa V. Effect of acid etching of glass ionomer cement surface on the microleakage of sandwich restorations. Appl Oral Sci. 2007;15(3):230–4.

Parolia A, Adhauliya n, de Moraes Porto ic, Mala k. A comparative evaluation of microleakage around class V cavities restored with different tooth colored restorative materials. Oral Health Dent Manag. 2014;13(1):120–6.

Jia S, Chen D, Wang D, Bao X, Tian X. Comparing marginal microleakage of three different dental materials in veneer restoration using a stereomicroscope: an in vitro study. BDJ Open. 2017;3:16010.

Arora V, Nikhil V, Sawani S, Arora P. The open sandwich technique with glass ionomer cement–a critical evaluation. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol. 2013;2(8):3874–82.

Walsh EL, Hembree JH. Microleakage at the gingival wall with four class V anterior restorative materials. J Prosthet Dent. 1985;54:370-2

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Corresponding: Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Concepción, Chile. Roosevelt 1550, Concepción, Chile. Phone +56-41-2204232 - E-mail journal@joralres.com.